Seats of Empire title


Ancient Saddles

Medieval Saddles

Medieval / Renaissance saddles

Pack Saddles

Peytrals and Cruppers


Complete panoplies

Clothing and Armour

Accessories, Diverse


Examples of Riding

Markets and Events

Contact and Ordering

Ancient saddles

The point at which horse cloths gave way to shaped saddles is lost in the mists of time. The scanty evidence suggest that earliest fully shaped saddle was in use in Europe from the second century before the Common Era. Evidence becomes much more prevalent in the first century CE in the Roman Empire, showing four horned saddles, which, despite their lack of stirrups, are highly effective in military use.

Roman saddle

A Roman saddle.

The evidence for these saddles is primarily pictorial, but those are supplemented by archaeological finds of leather pieces from saddle coverings, bronze plates used to face the horns,1 and a piece of wood which has been plausibly identified as a saddle arch from Carlisle.2. Very recently, excavations of a stable in Pompeii produced conclusive evidence on the matter, as the skeleton of a horse was found accompanied by a saddle, which, when sectioned, revealed a wooden tree.
The limited quantity and quality of evidence means that any reconstruction of such a saddle demands a lot of conjecture. As a point of fundamental philosophy, it should never be assumed that there was only one way of doing anything, even in a single culture over a limited period, let alone over the vast geographical spread of the earlier Roman Empire, and the hundreds of years until horned saddles were supplanted by stirrup-bearing saddles.

Iranian saddle

The saddle of an ancient Iranian clibanarius.

The katafraktoi (Greek) or clibanarii (Latin) of ancient Iran (Parthians and Persians - what did they call those troops?) were much more heavily armoured that Roman cavalry of the early imperial era. Riding armoured horses, they took the fight much more directly to the enemy. Hence, their saddles were designed to be even more enclosing and stable than Roman ones, with the front horns being shown in the artworks as arching over to enclose the thighs. Riding on this saddle demands a subtly different leg dynamic than any Roman saddle I have used, and one that is both even more stable and less strenuous. See the Ribchester Roman Festival 2017 page for more on this saddle in use.

steppe saddle

Conversion of a modern UP saddle producing
a late antique — medieval steppe / near eastern style.

Stirrup-bearing saddles were carried into Europe in the later fifth and early sixth century by the migrating tribes who overran the Western provinces of the Roman Empire. Their original form having low arches was never superseded, although as cavalry developed as a primary military mode, low saddles were relegated to civilian riding in the West, although continued in military us in the East until influenced from the West during the era of the Crusades.


  1. M.C. Bishop, ‘Cavalry Equipment of the Roman Army in the First Century A.D.’, in J.C. Coulston, (ed.), Military Equipment and the Identity of Roman Soldiers Proceedings of the Fourth Roman Military Equipment Conference, BAR International Series 394, Oxford 1988. Peter Connolly and Carol Van Driel-Murray, ‘The Roman Cavalry Saddle’, Brittannia vol. 22 (1991)
  2. Howard-Davis, Christine, et al. The Carlisle Millennium Project: Excavations in Carlisle, 1998—2001, vol 2: the finds, Oxford Archaeology North, Lancaster 2009, p. 814.